Christian Eriksen smashed home a late winner to put Spurs back within four points of Chelsea in the title race.
Spurs, who wilted on in the title run-in last year to take just two points from the final four games, struggled against in-form Palace before the break.
But they showed new-found mental strength to dominate the second half, find a precious 79th-minute goal and rack up their highest-ever number of points in a Premier League season.
“It was unbelievable — a very good performance,” said Pochettino.
“We are showing that we learned a lot from last season as a team. The team is showing that. That is so important because last season was a big challenge. To improve on that season, that was difficult.
“One area that was key for us to improve was in our mental atittude.
“The team are now showing we are ready. We are ready this season to fight — and, next season, we’ll be even better. It looks like we are better, more mature. The team are showing great maturity and you can see that you can trust them.
“Now we have five games ahead — a very exciting period, and an exciting weekend.”
Spurs remain 14 points clear of Arsenal, and victory in Sunday’s North London derby will guarantee them finishing above their arch-rivals for the first time in 22 years.
“It’s not a motivation or a distraction – we know what Arsenal means,” Pochettino added.
“But we are not thinking about being above Arsenal. Our challenge now is to try and reduce the gap to Chelesa again and think about bigger things than only to be above Arsenal.
“For one day, to win big trophies and achieve big things, your mentality must be bigger. You must think about bigger dreams. Big dreams — it’s important to have them.”
Striker Harry Kane said: “This is a tough place to come and we had to keep fighting. We knew our time would come and what a strike by Christian Eriksen.
“We knew we had to bounce back after the weekend and what a performance by everyone. We knew we had to dig deep and get a goal. It was a perfect win in the end.
“We can’t focus on Chelsea. We have five tough games, we have to win them to have a chance and hopefully we can do that.”
Palace boss Sam Allardyce fears Mamadou Sakho’s season could be over after the on-loan Liverpool defender went off on a stretcher after the break with a knee injury.